പി കെ ഗോപിയുടെ ഉൽഖനനം എ എസ് ഐ യുടെ കേരളത്തിലെ ഓഫീസറും പ റയുന്നില്ല
കടപ്പാട്: medianhypotheses.com A french site
Kolkata 2011 – Abstract M. Nambirajan
17 février 2010
Par Caroline Durand
Archaeological Survey of India
Pattanam (Muziris?) Excavations – A Port Town on the Malabar Coast: a few observations
The Pattanam excavations 2007, ’08, ‘09 & ‘10 undertaken by KCHR in collaboration with the Archaeological Survey of India are important in the early history of South India and the East –West exchanges in the Indian Ocean rim. The excavations at Pattanam yielded a wide variety of archaeological evidence for maritime trade contacts. Until the discovery of the site, the role of the Malabar Coast in the Early Historic trade network was understood only on the basis of detailed references in the Sangam Literature, Periplus, works of Pliny (Natural History), Ptolemy (Geographia) etc. and a few Roman coin-hoards found in Kerala. While several Indo-Roman sites have been investigated on the East Coast, the researches done in Malabar Coast did not yield any significant results.
Pattanam is a small village located in Chittatukara Panchayat – Vadakkekkara village, lying between Kodungallur and North Paravur in the Periyar delta, about 25 km north of Ernakulam/Kochi. The Arabian Sea is about 4 km west of the site. Since 19th century onwards, the Muziris has been considered as located somewhere near Kodungallr or Cranganur. The scholars like Anujan Achchan, K.V.Raman etc. conducted investigations in the area. Shajan in 1998 located the Pattanam site, which is under excavation. Subsequently, the site was investigated by a group of researchers and a hypothesis, that it could be the location of ancient Muziris, was put forth. Since 2006 the site is being subjected to excavations.
An early phase of ‘urbanization’ is evident from the burnt bricks, clay floors, triple grooved roof tiles, storage jars, ring well and fine pottery. Mainly it is pottery that indicates foreign contacts. The wharf gives further clue to the maritime association of the site. Apart from these features, its urban and maritime characteristics are also significant and are discussed in this presentation.
The enormous amount of artifacts recovered from excavations, unique features of the site and the location significance in relation to the palaeo coastline and water bodies suggest that Pattanam could have been part of the ancient port of Muziris. Still there are certain questions which require convincing answers. More research and evidences are necessary to understand the context of this early historic settlement and before anything could be said of this site being Muziris.